The word "Tarbiya" is an Arabic word that linguistically means increase, growth, and refinement. Conventionally, Tarbiya means the development and the training of people in various aspects. The word is commonly used to describe the upbringing of children as the parents provide them with physical, educational, moral and spiritual needs to help them grow and become useful members of society.

MAS aspires to raise a generation of committed and disciplined Muslims who will spread the message of Islam and implement the Movement's vision in all fields of Islamic work In MAS terminology, the word Tarbiya means the systematic development and training of members and potential members. It is a continuous and comprehensive process of developing all aspects of the Muslim character/personality, i.e., spiritual, intellectual, moral, social, and physical. The words “Islamic Tarbiya” imply that the development process conforms to Islamic guidelines and standards. This means that the goals that the process is designed to achieve in individuals conform to Islamic teachings and the means used to establish such goals are Islamic or Islamic compliant means. The Tarbiya process goes beyond the level of individuals to the level of the group, trying to establish the elements of team spirit that Islam teaches such as love, brotherhood, and mutual trust.

Tarbiya is the cornerstone of MAS comprehensive reform methodology, and the Tarbiya department is one of the permanent departments in the organization. This approach traces its origin to the Qur’an and to the teachings of Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, as he invested a great deal of effort in Tarbiya for his companions. As a result of his efforts, he left not only a great message, the message of Islam, but he also left a great generation that carried the message and spread it all over the land and moved humanity from darkness to light. It is the quality of people that the Prophet nurtured that constitute the secret behind the miracle of Islam. Also, Islamic history proves the effectiveness and relevance of this methodology. Imam Hassan Al-Banna, the founder and the leader of a distinguished Islamic movement, the Muslim Brotherhood, said, "Whenever you find the good Muslim, you find with him all means for great success."

MAS delivers a rigorous educational curriculum to its current and potential members that focuses on the systematic development of the Muslim individual, the Muslim family and the Muslim community. The focus of Tarbiya is to groom members who are distinguished, strive for excellence, have a sense of mission, are self-motivated, conduct a balanced life, live in peace with themselves and their environment, and are equipped with the necessary knowledge, understanding, and skills to make a difference in the society by taking an active role, both individually and collectively, in the reform process that seeks the betterment of our community, our country, and the whole world.

The Tarbiya process also aims to put members and potential members on the path of constant self-purification and self-development, and instill in them the passion for truth, righteousness, and justice.